Tag Archives: Linux

Run your Ubuntu/Debian 64 bit system with the latest stable kernel – 4.12.8!

linuxI have compiled yet another Ubuntu/Debian kernel for 64 bit systems. This time kernel 4.12.0-12-exton, equivalent to Kernel.org’s latest stable kernel 4.12.8 released 170816.

What’s new in Linux kernel 4.12?

Install kernel 4.12.0-12-exton in Ubuntu/Debian based distributions
My self-compiled Ubuntu kernels can be used in all types of modern Ubuntu systems, including Mint. They can even be used in Debian Jessie (Debian 8) and Debian Stretch (Debian 9). If you want to use my kernel 4.12.0-12-exton for 64 bit systems, you can DOWNLOAD it from here.

md5sum for ubuntu-kernel-64bit-4.12.0-12-exton.zip which is of 62,6 MB.

Installation instructions
Open the zip-file with WinZip, WinRAR or 7-Zip. Or run this command: unzip ubuntu-kernel-64bit-4.12.0-12-exton.zip. Go into the folder ubuntu-kernel-64bit-4.12.0-12-exton and run this command:
sudo dpkg -i *.deb

NOTE: Look into the folder ubuntu-kernel-64bit-4.12.0-12-exton first. Maybe you don’t want to install linux-tools and linux-cloud-tools. Then just delete six (6) deb-files before you run the above command.

Then: Run command sudo update-grub (if you use Grub2).

Nvidia
It is possible to install Nvidia’s proprietary drivers if you use “my” kernel 4.12.0-12-exton. Could be useful if you like to play games. The Nvidia drivers in for example Ubuntu’s repositories – “Current” etc. – can’t be used. It is supposed to be “impossible” to install Nvidia’s latest drivers when running kernel 4.10 – 4.12 without “patches” etc. On the other hand it’s a fact that kernel 4.12 has better support for the open-source Nvidia driver Nouveau than any other older kernel.

A small clarification
“My” kernel 4.12.0-12-exton is compiled (almost) the same way as all official Ubuntu kernels. That is, The Ubuntu Way. If not, the kernel would not function in a Ubuntu/Debian system.

Good luck!

ExTiX 17.7 with Budgie Desktop, Refracta Tools and kernel 4.11.0.10-exton

About ExTiX 17.7 with the Budgie Desktop
I’ve made a new extra version of ExTiX with Budgie Desktop. Budgie is focused on simplicity and elegance. Designed with the modern user in mind. Only a minimum of packages are installed in ExTiX Budgie. You can of course install all packages you want. Even while running ExTiX Budgie live. I.e. from a DVD or USB stick. Study all installed packages in ExTiX Budgie.

ABOUT ExTiX
All four ExTiX systems are based on Ubuntu and Debian.

Refracta Tools
While running ExTiX Budgie 17.7 live or from hard drive you can use Refracta Tools (pre-installed) to create your own live installable Ubuntu system. A ten year child can do it! Watch a slideshow below.

SCREENSHOTS
ExTiX Budgie Desktop with Spotify running
ExTiX Budgie Desktop – live
ExTiX Budgie Desktop – root
ExTiX Budgie running in VMware

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How To dual boot, triple boot or multiboot Linux with Windows in a simple way and be happy

In this instruction I will show you how easy it is to have several Linux systems installed on one computer together with for example Windows 10. The configuration is so simple a ten year old child can do it.

BACKGROUND
Ubuntu and all Linux systems based on Ubuntu (such as Linux Mint) uses Grub2 as boot manager. Also Debian and most other Linux systems use Grub2. Grub2 works differently from the old Grub Legacy.

UEFI BIOS and non-UEFI BIOS
The Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) or its version 2.x variant, Unified EFI (UEFI) is a firmware type that is widespread on recent computers, especially those more recent than 2010Ubuntu wiki.

Configuring Grub2 – Example for non-UEFI BIOS computers
One of my computers, an Acer Aspire 5750G from 2010, has a 750 GB hard drive and an external USB hard drive of 1000 GB. On that computer I have Windows 10 and twelve (12) different Linux systems installed. Of those twelve systems three are Android-x86 systems (AndEX Nougat and AndEX Marshmallow).  Below I will describe step by step how I configured Grub2 in the easiest way possible.

1. The computer was delivered with Windows 7 (now updated to Windows 10) preinstalled on /dev/sda2 and /dev/sda3. I immediately started up my computer from a Linux Mint Live DVD. Using GParted, I created seven new partitions on the internal hard drive and three on the external USB hard drive. After that I installed Mint on /dev/sda7 and Grub2 on /dev/sda (MBR) at the same time as the installer also suggested. Then I restarted my computer and checked that Mint (and Windows) could be started. Everything worked (as expected) fine. See screenshots below showing how my partitioning looks like now.

The internal hard drive partitions
Note the 4 GB SWAP partition on /dev/sda6

The external USB drive partitions

2. Then it was time to install Arch Linux on /dev/sda8. When the installation prompted installation of Grub2 during installation, I chose to install Grub2 on /dev/sda8. Such an installation of Grub2 does not affect the existing Grub2 installation in MBR. I did it just the same to find out “start data” for Arch Linux. I then read these start data from Mint in the /mnt/sda8/boot/grub/grub.cfg file.

3. After that I started Mint on /dev/sda7 again. Now it was time to get a real “multiboot computer” using Grub2. This is how I did it:
A) In /etc/grub.d I deleted all files except 00_header, 05_debian_theme, 06_mint_theme, 40_custom and README. Said folder then looked like this.



B)
I edited the /etc/grub.d/40_custom file to look like this. Note that this is how my 40_custom file looks like now when I have installed totally twelve Linux systems. What I should write about the start of Arch Linux (see above) was already fixed by looking at the /mnt/sda8/boot/grub/grub.cfg file. I could do it in a similar way when I installed the other eleven Linux systems.

C) Finally, I ran the update-grub command. Then the /boot/grub/grub.cfg file (which is the file Grub2 “takes into account” at boot) was created/changed. This file (grub.cfg) should never be edited manually. Instead, edit the file 40_custom, as I showed above. Always use Leafpad or Mousepad (or a similar simple editor) when editing 40_custom. Never Libre Office Writer or Word or the like of them. Study my present grub.cfg file. When I now start up my Acer Aspire the boot screen look like this.

My BIOS settings on my Acer Aspire look like this.

Configuring Grub2 – Example for UEFI BIOS computers
On another computer (laptop) Lenovo Z50 from 2015 I have Windows 10 installed together with three Linux systems. Ubuntu 17.04 and two Android-x86 systems. Since Windows 10 was installed in UEFI mode I also had to install Ubuntu 17.04 in UEFI mode to be able to configure Grub2 the way I describe above. I went into BIOS and changed the settings to look like this.

When I went into the boot menu in BIOS I could choose my USB stick. In this case Kingston DataTraveler – watch this screenshot.

So I started up Ubuntu 17.04 from the USB stick and installed it on a partition I had created in advance using GParted.  Since my Lenovo already had a ESP (EFI System Partition) I installed Grub2 onto that partition. When I now start up my Lenovo the boot screen looks like this. (You can of course install many more Linux systems if you like. Just edit /etc/grub.d/40_custom the way I describe above).

IMPORTANT: Identifying if the computer boots the Ubuntu DVD/USB stick in UEFI mode
If the BIOS is set up to boot the DVD/USB stick in UEFI mode, then you will see the screen below.

If the BIOS is NOT set up to boot the CD in UEFI mode, or if the disk is not 64-bit, then you will see the screen below.


(ExTiX is based on Ubuntu)

Grub2 bootsplash
One of the benefits of Grub2 is that you can have a nice high resolution image as bootsplash/grub boot image. The image may have the same size as the resolution on your screen can handle, for example 1366×768. It is common with a regular image in jpg, png or tga format. Just place the image in /boot/grub and run the update-grub command. If you get the answer that the image is found in /boot/grub it will work. If not, try editing the /etc /default/grub file and add the line
GRUB_BACKGROUND = “/boot/grub/MyNicePicture.png”
Then run the update-grub command again (and restart the computer).

Have a look at my /etc/default/grub file.

Change the text – font and size – which Grub2 shows at boot

Run the following command:
grub-mkfont –output=/boot/grub/DejaVuSansMono.pf2 –size=24 /usr/share/fonts/truetype/ttf-dejavu/DejaVuSansMono.ttf
(Maybe you’ll need to run the command (apt-get install ttf-dejavu first). Then edit the /etc/default/grub file and add the following line.
GRUB_FONT=/boot/grub/DejaVuSansMono.pf2
Run the update-grub command again. After rebooting, the Grub2 boot menu will surely look better (depending on how your boot image looks like).

Good luck!

/exton

Read about my Android-x86 Systems – Nougat, Marshmallow, Lollipop and KitKat at
andex.exton.net
– latest is AndEX Nougat!
and
about my Nougat, Marshmallow and Lollipop versions for Raspberry Pi 3/2 at
raspex.exton.se – latest is RaspAnd Nougat!

 

 

Run your Slackware installation with the latest kernel – 4.12-rc4!

SlackwareNEWS 170611
Kernel 4.12-rc4-x86_64-exton is my newest Slackware kernel. Kernel 4.12-rc4 was released by Kernel.org on June 4, 2017.

I have compiled a very useful (as I think) 64 bit kernel for Slackware Current (14.2) and/or all Slackware derivatives. For example Slax, Zenwalk and SlackEX. The kernel is compiled exactly in the same way as Slackware’s latest kernel huge. “My” kernel 4.12-rc4-x86_64-exton has even more support for new hardware, etc. Kernel 4.12-rc4 is the latest kernel available from Kernel.org. Released 20170604.

What’s new in kernel 4.12?

If you want to install my kernel in your Slackware 64 bit system, do this:

1. Download linux-kernel-4.12-rc4-x86_64-exton.txzmd5sum
2. Install it with the command installpkg linux-kernel-4.12-rc4-x86_64-exton.txz
(The kernel is packed just like Slackware’s original kernels so that everything ends up in the right place)
4. If necessary, change your Grub Legacy/Grub2 configuration
5. If you have an Nvidia graphics card in your computer, you may need to look over your files in /etc/modprobe.d before restarting the computer. That is remove the “blacklisting” of Nouveau’s kernel module in the appropriate files blacklist.conf and nvidia-installer-disable-nouveau.conf. With “my” kernel functions the Nouveau “free” driver works just fine.

NOTE: When you run the command installpkg linux-kernel-4.12-rc4-x86_64-exton.txz vmlinuz will be “created” in /boot. If you have /boot/vmlinuz already that file will be overwritten. In case you want to switch back to your old kernel you should make a backup of /boot/vmlinuz before you run the just mentioned command.

Restart your computer and enjoy!

RaspAnd Marshmallow 6.0.1 Build 170521 for Raspberry Pi 3/2 – now with Google Play Store, Aptoide, Aptoide TV, Kodi 17.1 and SnapTube

NEWS 170521 about RaspAnd Marshmallow 6.0.1
I’ve made a new extra updated version of RaspAnd Marshmallow. In this version I’ve included Kodi 17.1 (latest version which allows users to play and view most videos, music, podcasts, and other digital media files from local and network storage media and the Internet. YouTube is enabled and working very well!), Aptoide 8.2.1.1 (for installing new apps), Aptoide TV 3.2.1 (for installing new apps) and SnapTube 4.17.0.8739. (Using SnapTube you can download videos/movies from YouTube and replay them in Windows or Linux with perfect sound and video quality). Google Play Store is of course also pre-installed.

Raspberry Pi
RaspAnd Marshmallow runs very well on the new Raspberry Pi 3 computer. The system runs also on the “old” Raspberry Pi 2 computer.

How do I install RaspAnd?
Use Win32 Disk Imager in Windows or the dd-command in Linux.

What’s the point with Win32 Disk Imager?
Well, until now you had to have some basic knowledge about Linux to be able to install RaspAnd. Now you don’t need any special knowledge at all! (Just some basic computer knowledge).

About Aptoide App Manager and Google Play Store
I had to remove Aptoide in build 160915. I could not get Aptoide to work properly in that RaspAnd build. In RaspAnd Marshmallow 170521 Aptoide App Manager works very well – see this screenshot. Google Play Store works very well in both versions – see this screenshot. I.e.: A lot of apps can be found and installed.

YouTube performance
YouTube works alright in RaspAnd Marshmallow Build 170521. You can watch almost all videos. I.e. normally you will hear the sound very well, but some of the movies won’t play or play very slow with strange colors. If you want to run YouTube with (almost) perfect video and sound quality you must use Kodi 17.1, which is pre-installed. Example of perfect video quality in Kodi 17.1.

ABOUT KODI
Kodi (an award-winning free and open source (GPL) software media center for playing videos, music, pictures, games, and more) works very well in RaspAnd. You can enable a lot of Add-ons. Most important is that the YouTube Add-on is enabled by default and that it works very well. I.e. both the sound and the video performance when running YouTube in Kodi is satisfying.

Spotify
Spotify works very well in RaspAnd Marshmallow. Just log in and play your favorite music! Watch this screenshot.

Screenshots
Boot animation during the start of RaspAnd

Screenshot 1 – Google Play Store running
Screenshot 2 – RaspAnd’s new Desktop
Screenshot 3 – Aptoide running
Screenshot 4 – Kodi 17.1 running
Screenshot 5 – Example of perfect video quality while running Kodi 17.1

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ExTiX 17.5, Build 170508, with KDE 4.16.12 together with KDE Frameworks 5.31.0, Refracta Tools and kernel 4.11.0-1-exton

I have made a new version of ExTiX – The Ultimate Linux System. I call it ExTiX 17.5 KDE Live DVD. (The previous version was 17.0 from 161221). The best thing with ExTiX 17.5 is that while running the system live (from DVD/USB) or from hard drive you can use Refracta Tools (pre-installed) to create your own live installable Ubuntu system. So easy that a ten year child can do it!

ABOUT
ExTiX 17.5
KDE DVD 64 bit is based on Debian 8.7 Jessie/Debian 9 Stretch and Ubuntu 17.04. The original system includes the Desktop Environment Unity (Ubuntu). After removing Unity I have installed KDE Frameworks 5.31.0 with KDE 4.16.12. KDE Frameworks are 60 addon libraries to Qt which provide a wide variety of commonly needed functionality in mature, peer reviewed and well tested libraries with friendly licensing terms.

The system language is ENGLISH.

Used KERNEL
My special kernel 4.11.0-1-exton corresponding Kernel.org’s kernel 4.11-rc8.

What’s new in Linux kernel 4.11?

NEWS ABOUT ExTiX 17.5 Build 170508 with the KDE Desktop environment and Refracta Tools
1. ExTiX KDE is based on Ubuntu 17.04 Zesty Zapus. KDE 4.16.12 is used as Desktop environment. All packages have been updated to the latest version by 170508. Kernel 4.11.0-1-exton is used. (Kernel.org‘s kernel 4.11-rc8).
2. I have removed Google Chrome. It is now possible to watch Netflix movies in Firefox.
3. I have installed BlueGriffon Web Editor. BlueGriffon is a new WYSIWYG content editor for the World Wide Web. Powered by Gecko, the rendering engine of Firefox, it’s a modern and robust solution to edit Web pages in conformance to the latest Web Standards. Only to be compared with Dreamweaver. (In my opinion).
4. Other included important/useful packages are: LibreOffice, Thunderbird, GParted, Brasero, SMPlayer, GCC and other compilation tools so that you can install packages from source. Furthermore “all” multimedia codecs. Everything the average Linux user could wish for I would say.
5. The best thing with ExTiX 17.5 is that while running the system live (from DVD/USB) or from hard drive you can use Refracta Tools (pre-installed) to create your own live installable Ubuntu system. Very easy to do.

Screenshots
Screenshot 1 of ExTiX 17.5 Desktop – KDE 4.16.12 – NetworkManager running
Screenshot 2 of ExTiX 17.5 Desktop – Synaptic running
Screenshot 3 of ExTiX 17.5 Desktop – Samba running

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Android-x86_64 Nougat 7.1.1 – Build 170426/170423/170422 – with GAPPS and kernel 4.11-rc7/4.10.11-exton-android-x86_64

NEWS 170426 about AndEX Nougat 7.1.1
I’ve added a new ISO – android-x86_64-7.1.1-nougat-kernel-4.4.62-exton-vmware-1050mb-170426.iso – which can run very well live in VMware Workstation 12.5.5. You can of course also install the system in VMware. Kernel 4.4.62 is used. GAPPS and all other apps mentioned below are installed. NOTE: You can run AndEX Nougat Build 170426 also on newer laptops and Desktop computers. Sound won’t work on all though. The video performance is generally very good.

Screenshot – AndEX Build 170426 running in VMware

NEWS 170423: AndEX – Nougat 7.1.1 with kernel 4.11-rc7-exton-android-x86_64 respectively kernel 4.10-11-exton-android-x86_64 and GAPPS
My new builds of Android-x86_64 Nougat 7.1.1 have GAPPS pre-installed. I.e. Google Play Services, Google Play Store 7.6.08.N-all, Gmail and YouTube 12.09.58. Also many other apps. For example: Spotify 8.4.0.539, Clash of Clans 8.709.23, File Manager 2.0.0.355, Google Earth, Google Maps 9.48.2, SnapTube 4.3.0, Firefox 53.0 and Google Chrome 58.0. The two systems are called android_x86_64-7.1.1-nougat-gapps-kernel-4.11.rc7-exton-1160mb-170423 respectively android_x86_64-7.1.1-nougat-gapps-kernel-4.10.11-exton-1160mb-170422.

PREREQUISITE
Both systems have to be installed manually to hard drive. To be able to do that you must have at least one Linux system installed on your hard drive. You must also use Grub as bootloader.

ABOUT Andex Nougat 7.1.1

My compiled Android-x86_64 systems (Nougat 7.1.1) can run from hard drive on certain computers. They must be installed to hard drive and run from there. The systems can be installed on almost all newer laptops (and some Desktop computers). For example Acer (Aspire), HP, Samsung, Dell, Toshiba, Lenovo, Thinkpad, Fujitsu, Panasonic and Asus laptops. I can also mention that I could run my new Nougat versions without problems on a HP Pavilion 500-317no Desktop Computer. The Android-AndEX systems are distributed in the form of a Zip files. I.e. not as ISO files as the rest of my Linux distributions. You must do a manual installation to hard drive. That can even be done to a drive where you already have another Linux system (for example Ubuntu 17.04) installed. That’s sort of a Frugal Installation (normally used by Puppy Linux).

Android Nougat 7.1.1 was released 170106.

KERNELS
AndEX Nougat Build 170423 uses kernel 4.11-rc7. (Latest kernel by 170423). AndEX Nougat Build 170422 uses kernel 4.10.11. (The second latest stable kernel by 170423).

KNOWN ISSUES

1. You can’t run AndEX Nougat 7.1.1 Build 170423/170422 in VirtualBox and VMware. Note that my other two Android Nougat systems from 170201 respectively 161107 can run in VirtualBox and VMware.
2. Bluetooth won’t work.

And once again please note this
PREREQUISITE
Both systems have to be installed manually to hard drive. To be able to do that you must have at least one Linux system installed on your hard drive. You must also use Grub as bootloader.

Screenshots
Screenshot 1 – AndEX Nougat (ZIP) Desktop – kernel 4.11-rc7
Screenshot 2 – AndEX Nougat (ZIP) Desktop – kernel 4.10.11
Screenshot 3 – About

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A new light version of exGENT (Gentoo) live is ready – Build 170412

NEWS 20170412 about exGENT (Gentoo) 64 bit
I’ve made a light version of exGENT with only a few necessary packages pre-installed. It uses LXQt 0.11.0 as Desktop environment and kernel 4.10.4-aufs-gentoo-exton-s. The ISO file is of only 1090 MB compared to exGENT version 170407, which is of 2620 MB. Study all packages installed in Build 170412.

Screenshot
exGENT Build 170412 running Firefox and Netflix.

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Yet another version of exGENT Live (Gentoo Linux) – now with Xfce 4.12.1 and LXQt 0.11.0 – Build 170407

NEWS 20170407 about exGENT
I’ve made yet a new version (20170407) of exGENT based on Gentoo Linux. It uses Xfce 4.12.1 and LXQt 0.11.0 Desktop environments and kernel 4.10.4. It is for the 64 bit architecture. I call it exGENT 2017 Xfce4/LXQt Live DVD. It replaces version 20170331. The ISO file is of 2620 MB due to the fact that this version has a lot of packages pre-installed. Despite this exGENT version 170407 runs surprisingly fast from DVD or USB. Even in VirtualBox and VMware. Faster than most other Linux live systems. All installed packages in exGENT have been updated to the latest available version by 170407.

What’s new in exGENT Build 170407?
The boot loader Grub Legacy has been replaced by Grub2. I started this build in the hope that I should be able to implement a new independent installer program called Calamares. I wasn’t able to do it now though. (Many dependencies to satisfy). My old installer script will have to do until I find a solution. Anyway, I think exGENT Build 170407 can be of interest because of the change to Grub2 and the fact that it has one of the newest kernels installed. MOST IMPORTANT: In versions before 170309 the file system wasn’t writable when running exGENT live (from DVD). Now you can emerge (install) new programs/packages even while running the system from a DVD or USB stick. If you do that and later decide to install exGENT to hard drive all your changes will follow! Furthermore you can install/transfer exGENT to a USB stick with the dd command in Linux or use Etcher and Rufus in Windows. Watch a screenshot when Etcher is running. Such installations were impossible before. Note: I have uninstalled Google Chrome. It’s not needed anymore, since Netflix runs very well in Firefox now. I’ve also added the LXQt Desktop environment. LXQt is a lightweight Qt desktop environment. It will not get in your way. It will not hang or slow down your system. It is focused on being a classic desktop with a modern look and feel. You can choose between Xfce4 and LXQt when logging in at Slim’s login screen. Just press F1.

Used KERNEL
My special kernel 4.10.4-aufs-gentoo-exton-big corresponding Kernel.org’s kernel 4.10.4.

Programs etc
The best thing with exGENT is the premier autodetection of hardware and the ability to easily install the system to hard drive during a live session. Installed programs: Among many others GParted, GNU Emacs, Firefox, Spotify, Thunderbird, Samba, Vlc, AbiWord, Nvidia Graphics driver 375.39 and NetworkManager. Furthermore compilation tools so that you can install programs from source the Gentoo way.

Who is exGENT/Gentoo for?
Experienced Linux users or those who really want to learn Linux. (Perhaps also for people who are bored with mainstream distributions like Ubuntu).

Screenshots

exGENT running Nvidia config
exGENT running Brasero
exGENT running Samba
exGENT running Spotify – in Xfce4
exGENT running Spotify – in LXQt
exGENT running in VirtualBox
exGENT running in VMware (installation to virtual hard drive)
exGENT running Firefox and Netflix

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ExTiX 17.2 – “The Ultimate Linux System” – with LXQt 0.10.0 and kernel 4.10.0-14-exton – Build 170320

I have made a new version of ExTiX – The Ultimate Linux System. I call it ExTiX 17.2 LXQt Live DVD. (The previous version was 16.5 from 161012).

ABOUT
ExTiX 17.2 LXQt DVD 64 bit is based on Debian 8.7 Jessie/Debian 9 Stretch and Ubuntu 16.10 Yakkety Yak. The original system includes the Desktop Environment Unity (Ubuntu). After removing Unity I have installed LXQt 0.10.0. LXQt is the Qt port and the upcoming version of LXDE, the Lightweight Desktop Environment. It is the product of the merge between the LXDE-Qt and the Razor-qt projects: A lightweight, modular, blazing-fast and user-friendly desktop environment.

The system language is ENGLISH.

Used KERNEL
My special kernel 4.10.0-14-exton corresponding Kernel.org’s stable kernel 4.10.3. It’s the second latest stable kernel as of now.

What’s new in kernel 4.10?

SCREENSHOTS

Screenshot of ExTiX 17.2 Desktop – LXQt 0.10.0
Google Chrome with Netflix running
Connections to Windows computers via PCManFM using Samba

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