Tag Archives: Grub2

SlackEX Build 170831 (Slackware 14.2) live dvd with KDE 4.14.35, kernel 4.12.9-x86_64-exton, Google Chrome 60.0.3112 and VirtualBox 5.1.26

Slackware is the first widely-used Linux system, which is still developing. Slackware has existed since 1993. In comparison with for example Ubuntu and Linux Mint, many people believe that Slackware is “difficult”. Any novice can quickly learn to use Ubuntu they say. My remaster of Slackware Current (14.2), which I call SlackEX 14.2/Current 64 bit Linux Live DVD, is however just as easy to use as Ubuntu and/or Linux Mint. Some tend to complain that the Program Management in Slackware is awkward. That was perhaps earlier the case, but not anymore. Now we have the Application Managers Slackpkg and GSlapt – a GTK version of slapt-get. They are a piece of cake to use! Users of Synaptic will feel at ease with GSlapt.

New features in version 170831 of SlackEX
I have replaced kernel 4.10.2-x86_64-exton with kernel 4.12.9-x86_64-exton with support for “everything”. Most important is that I have changed repositories from Slackware 14.1 to Current. I.e. Slackware 14.2. KDE is upgraded to version 4.14.35 (latest KDE version). All other component software is also upgraded to the latest Slackware Current version by now. I may also mention in particular GParted 0.29.0, VirtualBox 5.1.26 (latest, not in Slackware’s repositories), Google Chrome 60.0.3112 (not in Slackware’s repositories – you can download my build at SourceForge.net), Gimp 2.8.10 (installed from source), GSlapt 0.5.4b, Slackpkg 2.82.1, Firefox 55.0.3, Thunderbird 52.3.0, Samba 4.6.7 and GCC 7.2.0. Furthermore I have installed Grub2, which can be used as boot loader (if you want) after a hard drive install. Study the full package LIST. Note: I have replaced Wicd with NetworkManager. It works better in SlackEX.

SCREENSHOTS
Screenshot 1 – KDE 4.14.35 Desktop with Netflix running
Screenshot 2 – KDE 4.14.35 Desktop with VirtualBox running
Screenshot 3 – Samba running
Screenshot 4 – Nvidia configuration
Screenshot 5 – Hard drive installation of SlackEX in VirtualBox

READ MORE….

How To dual boot, triple boot or multiboot Linux with Windows in a simple way and be happy

In this instruction I will show you how easy it is to have several Linux systems installed on one computer together with for example Windows 10. The configuration is so simple a ten year old child can do it.

BACKGROUND
Ubuntu and all Linux systems based on Ubuntu (such as Linux Mint) uses Grub2 as boot manager. Also Debian and most other Linux systems use Grub2. Grub2 works differently from the old Grub Legacy.

UEFI BIOS and non-UEFI BIOS
The Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) or its version 2.x variant, Unified EFI (UEFI) is a firmware type that is widespread on recent computers, especially those more recent than 2010Ubuntu wiki.

Configuring Grub2 – Example for non-UEFI BIOS computers
One of my computers, an Acer Aspire 5750G from 2010, has a 750 GB hard drive and an external USB hard drive of 1000 GB. On that computer I have Windows 10 and twelve (12) different Linux systems installed. Of those twelve systems three are Android-x86 systems (AndEX Nougat and AndEX Marshmallow).  Below I will describe step by step how I configured Grub2 in the easiest way possible.

1. The computer was delivered with Windows 7 (now updated to Windows 10) preinstalled on /dev/sda2 and /dev/sda3. I immediately started up my computer from a Linux Mint Live DVD. Using GParted, I created seven new partitions on the internal hard drive and three on the external USB hard drive. After that I installed Mint on /dev/sda7 and Grub2 on /dev/sda (MBR) at the same time as the installer also suggested. Then I restarted my computer and checked that Mint (and Windows) could be started. Everything worked (as expected) fine. See screenshots below showing how my partitioning looks like now.

The internal hard drive partitions
Note the 4 GB SWAP partition on /dev/sda6

The external USB drive partitions

2. Then it was time to install Arch Linux on /dev/sda8. When the installation prompted installation of Grub2 during installation, I chose to install Grub2 on /dev/sda8. Such an installation of Grub2 does not affect the existing Grub2 installation in MBR. I did it just the same to find out “start data” for Arch Linux. I then read these start data from Mint in the /mnt/sda8/boot/grub/grub.cfg file.

3. After that I started Mint on /dev/sda7 again. Now it was time to get a real “multiboot computer” using Grub2. This is how I did it:
A) In /etc/grub.d I deleted all files except 00_header, 05_debian_theme, 06_mint_theme, 40_custom and README. Said folder then looked like this.



B)
I edited the /etc/grub.d/40_custom file to look like this. Note that this is how my 40_custom file looks like now when I have installed totally twelve Linux systems. What I should write about the start of Arch Linux (see above) was already fixed by looking at the /mnt/sda8/boot/grub/grub.cfg file. I could do it in a similar way when I installed the other eleven Linux systems.

C) Finally, I ran the update-grub command. Then the /boot/grub/grub.cfg file (which is the file Grub2 “takes into account” at boot) was created/changed. This file (grub.cfg) should never be edited manually. Instead, edit the file 40_custom, as I showed above. Always use Leafpad or Mousepad (or a similar simple editor) when editing 40_custom. Never Libre Office Writer or Word or the like of them. Study my present grub.cfg file. When I now start up my Acer Aspire the boot screen look like this.

My BIOS settings on my Acer Aspire look like this.

Configuring Grub2 – Example for UEFI BIOS computers
On another computer (laptop) Lenovo Z50 from 2015 I have Windows 10 installed together with three Linux systems. Ubuntu 17.04 and two Android-x86 systems. Since Windows 10 was installed in UEFI mode I also had to install Ubuntu 17.04 in UEFI mode to be able to configure Grub2 the way I describe above. I went into BIOS and changed the settings to look like this.

When I went into the boot menu in BIOS I could choose my USB stick. In this case Kingston DataTraveler – watch this screenshot.

So I started up Ubuntu 17.04 from the USB stick and installed it on a partition I had created in advance using GParted.  Since my Lenovo already had a ESP (EFI System Partition) I installed Grub2 onto that partition. When I now start up my Lenovo the boot screen looks like this. (You can of course install many more Linux systems if you like. Just edit /etc/grub.d/40_custom the way I describe above).

IMPORTANT: Identifying if the computer boots the Ubuntu DVD/USB stick in UEFI mode
If the BIOS is set up to boot the DVD/USB stick in UEFI mode, then you will see the screen below.

If the BIOS is NOT set up to boot the CD in UEFI mode, or if the disk is not 64-bit, then you will see the screen below.


(ExTiX is based on Ubuntu)

Grub2 bootsplash
One of the benefits of Grub2 is that you can have a nice high resolution image as bootsplash/grub boot image. The image may have the same size as the resolution on your screen can handle, for example 1366×768. It is common with a regular image in jpg, png or tga format. Just place the image in /boot/grub and run the update-grub command. If you get the answer that the image is found in /boot/grub it will work. If not, try editing the /etc /default/grub file and add the line
GRUB_BACKGROUND = “/boot/grub/MyNicePicture.png”
Then run the update-grub command again (and restart the computer).

Have a look at my /etc/default/grub file.

Change the text – font and size – which Grub2 shows at boot

Run the following command:
grub-mkfont –output=/boot/grub/DejaVuSansMono.pf2 –size=24 /usr/share/fonts/truetype/ttf-dejavu/DejaVuSansMono.ttf
(Maybe you’ll need to run the command (apt-get install ttf-dejavu first). Then edit the /etc/default/grub file and add the following line.
GRUB_FONT=/boot/grub/DejaVuSansMono.pf2
Run the update-grub command again. After rebooting, the Grub2 boot menu will surely look better (depending on how your boot image looks like).

Good luck!

/exton

Read about my Android-x86 Systems – Nougat, Marshmallow, Lollipop and KitKat at
andex.exton.net
– latest is AndEX Nougat!
and
about my Nougat, Marshmallow and Lollipop versions for Raspberry Pi 3/2 at
raspex.exton.se – latest is RaspAnd Nougat!

 

 

Yet another version of exGENT Live (Gentoo Linux) – now with Xfce 4.12.1 and LXQt 0.11.0 – Build 170407

NEWS 20170407 about exGENT
I’ve made yet a new version (20170407) of exGENT based on Gentoo Linux. It uses Xfce 4.12.1 and LXQt 0.11.0 Desktop environments and kernel 4.10.4. It is for the 64 bit architecture. I call it exGENT 2017 Xfce4/LXQt Live DVD. It replaces version 20170331. The ISO file is of 2620 MB due to the fact that this version has a lot of packages pre-installed. Despite this exGENT version 170407 runs surprisingly fast from DVD or USB. Even in VirtualBox and VMware. Faster than most other Linux live systems. All installed packages in exGENT have been updated to the latest available version by 170407.

What’s new in exGENT Build 170407?
The boot loader Grub Legacy has been replaced by Grub2. I started this build in the hope that I should be able to implement a new independent installer program called Calamares. I wasn’t able to do it now though. (Many dependencies to satisfy). My old installer script will have to do until I find a solution. Anyway, I think exGENT Build 170407 can be of interest because of the change to Grub2 and the fact that it has one of the newest kernels installed. MOST IMPORTANT: In versions before 170309 the file system wasn’t writable when running exGENT live (from DVD). Now you can emerge (install) new programs/packages even while running the system from a DVD or USB stick. If you do that and later decide to install exGENT to hard drive all your changes will follow! Furthermore you can install/transfer exGENT to a USB stick with the dd command in Linux or use Etcher and Rufus in Windows. Watch a screenshot when Etcher is running. Such installations were impossible before. Note: I have uninstalled Google Chrome. It’s not needed anymore, since Netflix runs very well in Firefox now. I’ve also added the LXQt Desktop environment. LXQt is a lightweight Qt desktop environment. It will not get in your way. It will not hang or slow down your system. It is focused on being a classic desktop with a modern look and feel. You can choose between Xfce4 and LXQt when logging in at Slim’s login screen. Just press F1.

Used KERNEL
My special kernel 4.10.4-aufs-gentoo-exton-big corresponding Kernel.org’s kernel 4.10.4.

Programs etc
The best thing with exGENT is the premier autodetection of hardware and the ability to easily install the system to hard drive during a live session. Installed programs: Among many others GParted, GNU Emacs, Firefox, Spotify, Thunderbird, Samba, Vlc, AbiWord, Nvidia Graphics driver 375.39 and NetworkManager. Furthermore compilation tools so that you can install programs from source the Gentoo way.

Who is exGENT/Gentoo for?
Experienced Linux users or those who really want to learn Linux. (Perhaps also for people who are bored with mainstream distributions like Ubuntu).

Screenshots

exGENT running Nvidia config
exGENT running Brasero
exGENT running Samba
exGENT running Spotify – in Xfce4
exGENT running Spotify – in LXQt
exGENT running in VirtualBox
exGENT running in VMware (installation to virtual hard drive)
exGENT running Firefox and Netflix

READ MORE…

SlackEX (Slackware 14.2) Live DVD with KDE 4.14.27, Nvidia 375.39 and kernel 4.10.2-x86_64-exton – Build 170314

SlackEX is based on Slackware Current/14.2. Slackware is the first widely-used Linux system, which is still developing. Slackware has existed since 1993. The older the fiddle the sweeter the tune or as we say in Sweden: “Gammal är äldst”.

New features in version 170314 of SlackEX
I have replaced kernel 4.7.1-x86_64-exton with kernel 4.10.2-x86_64-exton with support for “everything”. Most important is that I have changed repositories from Slackware 14.1 to Current. I.e. Slackware 14.2. KDE is upgraded to version 4.14.27 (latest KDE version). All other component software is also upgraded to the latest Slackware Current version by now. I may also mention in particular GParted 0.27.0 (latest, not in Slackware’s repositories), VirtualBox 5.1.16 (latest, not in Slackware’s repositories), Google Chrome  (not in Slackware’s repositories), Nvidia’s proprietary Graphic driver 375.39 (latest driver), Gimp 2.8.10 (installed from source), GSlapt 0.5.4b, Slackpkg 2.82.1, Firefox 52.0, Thunderbird 45.2.8, Samba 4.5.5 and GCC 5.4.0. Furthermore I have installed Grub2, which can be used as boot loader (if you want) after a hard drive install. Study the full package LIST. Note: I have replaced Wicd with NetworkManager. It works better in SlackEX.

Install SlackEX to hard drive
Use this INSTRUCTION. You can (if you want) use Grub2 (new GRUB) as boot loader. (Slackware original still uses LILO). You can (of course) also run and install SlackEX in VirtualBox and VMware.

Install SlackEX to a USB stick
Please read my INSTALL INSTRUCTIONS. NOTE: All system changes are PERSISTENT.

Why Slackware?
Slackware is grossly underestimated (in my opinion). This article give you ten (10) reasons to choose Slackware.

SCREENSHOTS
Screenshot 1 – KDE 4.14.27 Desktop with Netflix running
Screenshot 2 – KDE 4.14.27 Desktop with VirtualBox running
Screenshot 3 – Samba running
Screenshot 4 – GSlapt running
Screenshot 5 – Nvidia configuration

READ MORE…

exGENT (Gentoo) 64 bit Linux Live DVD with Xfce4, Grub2 and kernel 4.10.1-gentoo-exton – Build 170303

NEWS 20170303 about exGENT
I’ve made yet a new version (20170303) of exGENT based on Gentoo Linux. Now with Xfce 4.12.1 and kernel 4.10.1. It is for the 64 bit architecture. I call it exGENT 2017 Xfce4 Live DVD. It replaces version 20170209. The ISO file is of 2760 MB due to the fact that this version has a lot of packages pre-installed. Despite this exGENT version 170303 runs surprisingly fast from DVD or USB. Even in VirtualBox and VMware. Faster than most other Linux live systems. All installed packages in exGENT have been updated to the latest available version by 170303.

What’s new in exGENT Build 170303?
The boot loader Grub Legacy has been replaced by Grub2. I started this build in the hope that I should be able to implement a new independent installer program called Calamares. I wasn’t able to do it now though. (Many dependencies to satisfy). My old installer script will have to do until I find a solution. Anyway, I think exGENT Build 170303 can be of interest because of the change to Grub2 and the fact that it has the newest kernel installed. 

Used KERNEL
My special kernel 4.10.1-gentoo-exton corresponding Kernel.org’s kernel 4.10.1. It’s the latest stable kernel as of now. (20170303).

What’s new in kernel 4.10?

Programs etc
The best thing with exGENT is the premier auto detection of hardware and the ability to easily install the system to hard drive during a live session. Installed programs: Among many others GParted, GNU Emacs, Firefox, Google Chrome, Vlc, Spotify, Thunderbird, Samba, AbiWord, 
Nvidia Graphics driver 378.09 and NetworkManager. Furthermore compilation tools so that you can install programs from source the Gentoo way. (After the installation to hard drive).

Quick install to Hard Drive
exGENT Linux can be installed to hard drive in 3 – 10 min. (Depending on computer type). This means that all of you who might hesitate to perform a normal Gentoo installation – which can take up to a couple of days – now have the chance to get this great Linux system (Gentoo) installed on your computers very easy.

SPOTIFY
You can easy and quick install Spotify in exGENT. Just run the command emerge spotify. The installation takes about 1 min.
NOTE: Spotify is pre-installed in Build 170303.

Google Chrome
To be able to run Netflix in exGENT you’ll need Google Chrome. Just install it with the command emerge –ask www-client/google-chrome
Screenshot 1
Screenshot 2
Screenshot 3 – Netflix is running
NOTE: Google Chrome is pre-installed in Build 170303.

Who is exGENT/Gentoo for?
Experienced Linux users or those who really want to learn Linux. (Perhaps also for people who are bored with mainstream distributions like Ubuntu).

Screenshots
exGENT running Nvidia config
exGENT running Brasero
exGENT running Samba
exGENT running Spotify
exGENT running in VirtualBox
exGENT running in VMware
exGENT running Google Chrome and Netflix

READ MORE about exGENT…

SlackEX (Slackware 14.1) Live DVD Build 151211 with KDE and kernel 4.3.1-x86_64-exton

slackware_logoSlackEX is based on Slackware 14.1. Slackware is the first widely-used Linux system, which is still developing. Slackware has existed since 1993.

New features in version 151211 of SlackEX
I have replaced kernel 4.1.1-x86_64-exton with kernel 4.3.1-x86_64-exton with support for “everything”. KDE is downgraded to version 4.10.5 from version 4.11.1. All other component software is also upgraded to the latest Slackware version by now. I may mention in particular GParted 0.24.0 (latest, not in Slackware’s repositories), VirtualBox 5.0.10 (latest, not in Slackware’s repositories), Google Chrome 46.0.2490.86 (latest, not in Slackware’s repositories),  AbiWord 2.8.6 (not in Slackware’s repositories), Gimp 2.8.10 (installed from source), GSlapt 0.5.3h, Firefox 31.7, Thunderbird 31.6, Samba 3.6.8 and GCC 4.8.2. Furthermore I have installed Grub2, which can be used as boot loader (if you want) after a hard drive install. Study the full package LIST.

Why Slackware?
Slackware is grossly underestimated (in my opinion). This article give you ten (10) reasons to choose Slackware.

Screenshot 1 – KDE 4.10.5 Desktop

Screenshot 2 – KDE 4.10.5 Desktop

Screenshot 3 – Netflix running

READ MORE…

About SlackEX 14.1 64 bit build 150523

Slackware is the first widely-used Linux system, which is still developing. Slackware has existed since 1993. In comparison with for example Ubuntu and Linux Mint, many people believe that Slackware is “difficult”. Any novice can quickly learn to use Ubuntu they say. My remaster of Slackware 14.1, which I call SlackEX 14.1/current 64 bit Linux Live DVD, is however just as easy to use as Ubuntu and/or Linux Mint. Some tend to complain that the Program Management in Slackware is awkward. That was perhaps earlier the case, but not anymore. Now we have the Application Managers Slackpkg and GSlapt – a GTK version of slapt-get. They are a piece of cake to use! Users of Synaptic will feel at ease with GSlapt.

New features in version 150523 of SlackEX
I have replaced kernel 3.18.1-x86_64-exton with kernel 4.0.4-x86_64-exton with support for “everything”. KDE is downgraded to version 4.10.5 from version 4.11.1. All other component software is also upgraded to the latest Slackware version by now. I may mention in particular GParted 0.17.0 (latest, not in Slackware’s repositories), VirtualBox 4.3.28 (latest, not in Slackware’s repositories), AbiWord 2.8.6 (not in Slackware’s repositories), Gimp 2.8.10 (installed from source), GSlapt 0.5.3h, Firefox 31.7, Thunderbird 31.6, Samba 3.6.8 and GCC 4.8.2. Furthermore I have installed Grub2, which can be used as boot loader (if you want) after a hard drive install. Study the full package LIST.

Why Slackware?
Slackware is grossly underestimated (in my opinion). This article give you ten (10) reasons to choose Slackware.

Screenshot 1 – KDE 4.10.5 Desktop
Screenshot 2 – KDE 4.10.5 Desktop
Screenshot 3 – Netflix running

READ MORE…