Tag Archives: EFI

DebEX KDE/Plasma with Plasma 5:47, Refracta tools, Calamares Installer and kernel 4.18.0-rc8-exton – Build 180814

ABOUT DebEX
All three DebEX systems/distributions are a based on 
Debian Buster/Sid (upcoming Debian 10). Budgie Desktop 10.4 is used as Desktop environment in DebEX Barebone/Budgie. Gnome 3.26 and Mate 1.18 are used in DebEX GnomeKDE Plasma Desktop 5:47 is used in DebEX KDE. The system language is English (in all three versions of DebEX).

NEWS 180814 about DebEX KDE Plasma – a Refracta Build
I have made two new versions of DebEX KDE Plasma Live DVD – one efi and one non-efi version. They replace version 180221. It’s a pure Debian system. (Unstable/Experimental). I.e.: There are no Ubuntu or Kubuntu elements involved. DebEX KDE Plasma uses the KDE Plasma Desktop 5:47 as Desktop environment. Both versions use kernel 4.18.0-rc8-exton – (4.18-rc8). I have replaced Wicd with NetworkManager. It works better. I have replaced Google Chrome with Iceweasel (Firefox) 52.9 (for Netflix). I’ve also added SMPlayer – an alternative to Vlc. (SMPlayer is a free media player for Windows and Linux with built-in codecs that can play virtually all video and audio formats. It doesn’t need any external codecs. Just install SMPlayer and you’ll be able to play all formats without the hassle to find and install codec packs). All other installed packages have also been updated to the latest version of 180814. Study the full package list. MOST IMPORTANT CHANGES: I have replaced Refracta Installer with Calamares 3.2.1 Installer Framework. Now you can choose language when the installation starts. When it’s ready everything will be in your chosen language! You can even use Calamares in VirtualBox and VMware – i.e. non-efi computers. Then download and run debex-64bit-plasma-refracta-calamares-non-efi-1210mb-180814.iso. Watch a movie about the Calamares installation process of DebEX KDE in VirtualBox. You can use Calamares to install DebEX KDE on all non-efi computers without problems. VirtualBox and VMware are like non-efi computers.

MOVIE about Calamares Installer
Watch a movie
about the Calamares installation process in VirtualBox.

Important about Refracta
You can use the Refracta tools (pre-installed in all three versions of DebEX) to create your own installable Debian Live DVD once you have installed DebEX to hard drive. I mean change everything and then create a whole new Debian live system. When you start Refracta it will look like this. You don’t even have to install DebEX to hard drive before you can use the Refracta tools. If you have plenty of RAM you can create a new (your own!) Debian system while running DebEX from DVD or a USB stick. Please note that the whole Refracta process (creating your new ISO) will only take 10 – 50 min! You’ll find the ISO in /home/debex.

Why two versions of DebEX KDE?
The thing is that the packages grub-pc and grub-efi-amd64 can’t be installed at the same time. To be able to use Calamares Installer on non-efi computers grub-pc has to be installed.

SCREENSHOTS
1. The Plasma Desktop 
2. Running in VirtualBox
3. Running in VMware
4. Watch a movie about the Calamares installation process of DebEX KDE in VirtualBox

READ MORE…


Read about my Android-x86 Systems – Oreo, Nougat, Marshmallow, Lollipop and KitKat at

andex.exton.netlatest is AndEX Oreo 8.1!

and

about my Oreo, Nougat, Marshmallow and Lollipop versions for Raspberry Pi 3/2 at

raspex.exton.se
– latest is RaspAnd Oreo 8.1!


ExTiX 18.2 with Deepin 15.5 Desktop, Refracta snapshot, Calamares 3.1.9 Installer and kernel 4.15.2-exton – Build 180210/180206

NEWS about ExTiX 18.2 Deepin 180210
I’ve released a new version of ExTIX 18.2 Deepin today with Calamares 3.1.9 installed from source and kernel 4.15.2-exton. Calamares is an installer framework. By design it is very customizable, in order to satisfy a wide variety of needs and use cases. All packages have been updated to the latest available version as of today. Study all installed packages in ExTiX Deepin Build 180210.  Please note that I’ve kept the first ExTiX 18.2 Deepin Build 180206 on the server. The kernel 4.15.1-x86_64-exton, used in Build 180206, is compiled in another way than kernel 4.15.2-exton used in Build 180210. In version 180206 of ExTiX 18.2 Deepin I “forgot” to install the kernel headers. That was the main reason for me to release a new version of ExTiX 18.2 Deepin again. The kernel headers are needed if you want to install certain extra packages in ExTiX, for example Nvidia’s proprietary graphics driver. You can download “my” kernel 4.15.2-exton if you want to use it in another Debian/Ubuntu system.

NEWS about ExTiX 18.2 Deepin 180206
I’ve released a new version of ExTIX 18.2 Deepin today with Calamares 3.1.9 installed from source and kernel 4.15.1-x86_64-exton. Calamares is an installer framework. By design it is very customizable, in order to satisfy a wide variety of needs and use cases. All packages have been updated to the latest available version as of today. Study all installed packages in ExTiX Deepin Build 180206.

About ExTiX 18.2 with the Deepin 15.5 Desktop
I’ve made a new extra version of ExTiX with Deepin 15.5 Desktop (made in China!). Deepin is devoted to providing a beautiful, easy to use, safe and reliable system for global users. Only a minimum of packages are installed in ExTiX Deepin. You can of course install all packages you want. Even while running ExTiX Deepin live. I.e. from a DVD or USB stick. Study all installed packages in ExTiX Deepin.

ABOUT ExTiX
All five ExTiX systems are based on Ubuntu and Debian.

The Ultimate Linux System
I’ve called my different versions of ExTiX The Ultimate Linux System for many years by now. As regards ExTiX 18.2 Deepin I feel it’s especially justified. Everything just works.

Used KERNEL
My special kernel 4.15.1-x86_64-exton corresponding Kernel.org’s latest kernel 4.15.1, released 180203.

What’s new in Linux kernel 4.15?

SCREENSHOTS
1. ExTiX Deepin 15.5 Desktop – running in VirtualBox
2. ExTiX Deepin running Refracta snapshot
3. ExTiX Deepin running in VirtualBox – changing Grub packages
4. Calamares 3.1.9 running in ExTiX 18.2
5. ExTiX Deepin running the Refracta Installer
6. ExTiX Deepin login screen (LightDM)
7. Showing many installed programs

READ MORE…


Read about my Android-x86 Systems – Oreo, Nougat, Marshmallow, Lollipop and KitKat at
andex.exton.net
– latest is AndEX Oreo 8.1!
and
about my Nougat, Marshmallow and Lollipop versions for Raspberry Pi 3/2 at
raspex.exton.se – latest is RaspAnd Nougat!

How To dual boot, triple boot or multiboot Linux with Windows in a simple way and be happy

In this instruction I will show you how easy it is to have several Linux systems installed on one computer together with for example Windows 10. The configuration is so simple a ten year old child can do it.

BACKGROUND
Ubuntu and all Linux systems based on Ubuntu (such as Linux Mint) uses Grub2 as boot manager. Also Debian and most other Linux systems use Grub2. Grub2 works differently from the old Grub Legacy.

UEFI BIOS and non-UEFI BIOS
The Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) or its version 2.x variant, Unified EFI (UEFI) is a firmware type that is widespread on recent computers, especially those more recent than 2010Ubuntu wiki.

Configuring Grub2 – Example for non-UEFI BIOS computers
One of my computers, an Acer Aspire 5750G from 2010, has a 750 GB hard drive and an external USB hard drive of 1000 GB. On that computer I have Windows 10 and twelve (12) different Linux systems installed. Of those twelve systems three are Android-x86 systems (AndEX Nougat and AndEX Marshmallow).  Below I will describe step by step how I configured Grub2 in the easiest way possible.

1. The computer was delivered with Windows 7 (now updated to Windows 10) preinstalled on /dev/sda2 and /dev/sda3. I immediately started up my computer from a Linux Mint Live DVD. Using GParted, I created seven new partitions on the internal hard drive and three on the external USB hard drive. After that I installed Mint on /dev/sda7 and Grub2 on /dev/sda (MBR) at the same time as the installer also suggested. Then I restarted my computer and checked that Mint (and Windows) could be started. Everything worked (as expected) fine. See screenshots below showing how my partitioning looks like now.

The internal hard drive partitions
Note the 4 GB SWAP partition on /dev/sda6

The external USB drive partitions

2. Then it was time to install Arch Linux on /dev/sda8. When the installation prompted installation of Grub2 during installation, I chose to install Grub2 on /dev/sda8. Such an installation of Grub2 does not affect the existing Grub2 installation in MBR. I did it just the same to find out “start data” for Arch Linux. I then read these start data from Mint in the /mnt/sda8/boot/grub/grub.cfg file.

3. After that I started Mint on /dev/sda7 again. Now it was time to get a real “multiboot computer” using Grub2. This is how I did it:
A) In /etc/grub.d I deleted all files except 00_header, 05_debian_theme, 06_mint_theme, 40_custom and README. Said folder then looked like this.



B)
I edited the /etc/grub.d/40_custom file to look like this. Note that this is how my 40_custom file looks like now when I have installed totally twelve Linux systems. What I should write about the start of Arch Linux (see above) was already fixed by looking at the /mnt/sda8/boot/grub/grub.cfg file. I could do it in a similar way when I installed the other eleven Linux systems.

C) Finally, I ran the update-grub command. Then the /boot/grub/grub.cfg file (which is the file Grub2 “takes into account” at boot) was created/changed. This file (grub.cfg) should never be edited manually. Instead, edit the file 40_custom, as I showed above. Always use Leafpad or Mousepad (or a similar simple editor) when editing 40_custom. Never Libre Office Writer or Word or the like of them. Study my present grub.cfg file. When I now start up my Acer Aspire the boot screen look like this.

My BIOS settings on my Acer Aspire look like this.

Configuring Grub2 – Example for UEFI BIOS computers
On another computer (laptop) Lenovo Z50 from 2015 I have Windows 10 installed together with three Linux systems. Ubuntu 17.04 and two Android-x86 systems. Since Windows 10 was installed in UEFI mode I also had to install Ubuntu 17.04 in UEFI mode to be able to configure Grub2 the way I describe above. I went into BIOS and changed the settings to look like this.

When I went into the boot menu in BIOS I could choose my USB stick. In this case Kingston DataTraveler – watch this screenshot.

So I started up Ubuntu 17.04 from the USB stick and installed it on a partition I had created in advance using GParted.  Since my Lenovo already had a ESP (EFI System Partition) I installed Grub2 onto that partition. When I now start up my Lenovo the boot screen looks like this. (You can of course install many more Linux systems if you like. Just edit /etc/grub.d/40_custom the way I describe above).

IMPORTANT: Identifying if the computer boots the Ubuntu DVD/USB stick in UEFI mode
If the BIOS is set up to boot the DVD/USB stick in UEFI mode, then you will see the screen below.

If the BIOS is NOT set up to boot the CD in UEFI mode, or if the disk is not 64-bit, then you will see the screen below.


(ExTiX is based on Ubuntu)

Grub2 bootsplash
One of the benefits of Grub2 is that you can have a nice high resolution image as bootsplash/grub boot image. The image may have the same size as the resolution on your screen can handle, for example 1366×768. It is common with a regular image in jpg, png or tga format. Just place the image in /boot/grub and run the update-grub command. If you get the answer that the image is found in /boot/grub it will work. If not, try editing the /etc /default/grub file and add the line
GRUB_BACKGROUND = “/boot/grub/MyNicePicture.png”
Then run the update-grub command again (and restart the computer).

Have a look at my /etc/default/grub file.

Change the text – font and size – which Grub2 shows at boot

Run the following command:
grub-mkfont –output=/boot/grub/DejaVuSansMono.pf2 –size=24 /usr/share/fonts/truetype/ttf-dejavu/DejaVuSansMono.ttf
(Maybe you’ll need to run the command (apt-get install ttf-dejavu first). Then edit the /etc/default/grub file and add the following line.
GRUB_FONT=/boot/grub/DejaVuSansMono.pf2
Run the update-grub command again. After rebooting, the Grub2 boot menu will surely look better (depending on how your boot image looks like).

Good luck!

/exton

Read about my Android-x86 Systems – Oreo, Nougat, Marshmallow, Lollipop and KitKat at
andex.exton.net
– latest is AndEX Oreo 8.1!
and
about my Oreo, Nougat, Marshmallow and Lollipop versions for Raspberry Pi 3/2 at
raspex.exton.se – latest is RaspAnd Oreo 8.1!